From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Wolfgang Schwanke) Newsgroups: soc.culture.german Subject: Re: TV networks in Germany Date: 2 Jun 1994 20:04:11 GMT ARD - Network of the 11 regional public stations that make up the ARD consortium. ARD as such (the channel and the consortium) has existed since 1954, the forerunner NWDR-TV started in 1952. Reception: air, cable, satellite ZDF - Second national public channel, started in 1963 Reception: air, cable, satellite The "3rd" channels - Each of the 11 ARD stations produce a regional TV channels for their area (in some cases neighbouring stations cooperating, thus giving only 8 "3rds"). The 3rd channels started operating in the late 60s, in eastern Germany in 1991. Reception: air, some cable & satellite The above make the scenario for West Germany through the 60s and 70s. It is only with the advent of satellite and cable technology in the early 80s that commercial TV has become legal. The public stations are in the game too though. SAT1 - First German commercial station, previously named PKS. Started some time in the first half of the 1980s. Reception: cable, satellite, in many areas air RTL - Commercial station originally broadcasting from Luxembourg for German speaking audience, but now officially based in Germany. Biggest competitor of SAT1, founded approx. at the same time. Radio Luxembourg produces similar channels aiming at Dutch and French speaking audiences. Reception: cable, satellite, in many areas air 3SAT - Produced in cooperation by public stations of Switzerland, Austria and Germany (ZDF). Mainly cultural content, exists since approx. mid-80s. Reception: cable, satellite Kabelkanal - Commercial light entertainment channel (feature films, series), since approx. late 80s. Reception: cable only Pro7 - Similar to Kabelkanal Reception: cable, satellite, in some places air n-tv - Commercial news-only channel a la CNN, fairly new Reception: cable, satellite, in some places air VOX - Commercial news and light entertainment, fairly new, bankrupt Reception: cable, satellite, in some places air DSF - Sports only channel, fairly new Reception: cable, satellite RTL2 - Second RTL channel with similar content, fairly new Reception: cable, satellite Viva - German copy of MTV, new Reception: cable, satellite Arte - Franco-German coproduced bilingual cultural channel, since late 80s Reception: cable, satellite Then there are a couple of small local commercial stations. All other TV channels received in Germany are either of pan-European nature (MTV Europe, Eurosport ...) or foreign ones. (see below) *) Cheers :) Wolfgang ---------------------------------------------------------------- So much for the situation in 1994. In the meantime we've had some more commercial stations added: VIVA II - A more mellow/boring music channel as opposed to VIVA, which is much more teen/charts/dance oriented. VH-1 Deutschland - Similar to VIVA II Super RTL - Another RTL channel, containting mostly reruns of reruns of former RTL programmes. tm3 - Women TV Deutsche Welle TV - A governement sponsored channel by the shortwave station Deutsche Welle, aimed strictly at viewers abroad. Digital TV: Since mid-1996, digital TV in the DVB standard has started, with different packets launching during the year and can be received through satellite or cable Most of them will be pay-TV. Digital TV requires a separate box for reception. *) pan-European channels: The usual satellite channels aimed at all of Europe: MTV Europe, EuroSport, NBC Super Channel, BBC World, TV5, CNN International, etc. Channels of neighbouring countries: Austria, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark can be received in near-border areas. Luxemburg is a major player with RTL anyway. France, Czechoslovakia and Poland can also be received, but because of differing broadcast standards only with some technical difficulties.